Tuesday, December 13, 2011


I am not a doctor or nurse. I have no medical training. The following information is just the basics. The goal is for my students to be able to explain them in simple terms. All information gathered from Wikipedia, as of November, 2013:







Typhus – (škvrnitý týfus) is any of several similar diseases caused by the bacteria Rickettsiae, spread by lice. The name comes from the Greek typhos meaning smoky, describing the state of mind of those infected. The two main types of Typhus are Epidemic and Murine. Symptoms of Epidemic Typhus are chils, cough, high fever, headache, delirium, stupor, photophobia (sensitivity of light), joint and muscle pain, rashes, and low blood pressure. Symptoms of Murine typhus are abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, backache, high fever, hacking cough, joint pain, headaches, and a dull red rash that begins in the middle of the body and spreads. There is a Typhus vaccine. Treatment with antibiotics cures most patients:

Typhoid fever – (brušný týfus) unrelated to Typhus, is a common, bacterial disease transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, containing the bacterium Salmonella. Typhoid fever has four week-long stages. First, there is a fever slowly climbing as high as 40 °C (104 °F), profuse sweating, and stomach flu. Then there is a week of delerium, rash on the chest, swollen spleen and liver, and a green diarrhea that smells like pea soup. The third week includes complications like intestinal perforation and hemorrhaging. In the fourth week, the fever finally recedes.


Crabs – (kraby) are parasitic insects notorious for infesting human pubic hair. The species may also live on other areas with hair, including eyelashes. They feed on blood. Humans are the only known hosts of this parasite. The main symptom is itching. Crab lice can be treated with permethrin 1% cream rinse and pyrethrins. Shaving off any hair in the affected areas is necessary to ensure full removal of the dead lice and nits. A second treatment after 10 days is recommended. It is crucial to change all bed sheets. Sheets must be put away in a plastic bag, without air and well shut, and left alone for 15 days before washing to avoid survival of lice eggs that may lead to reinfestation.

Gonorrhea – (kvapavka) or The Clap, is a common sexually transmitted infection. The usual symptoms in men are a burning pain while urinating and penile discharge. Women, while asymptomatic half the time, may have vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. If left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis (inflamation of the testicles), pelvic inflammatory disease, or inflammation throughout the body, affecting joints and your heart. Treatment is commonly with ceftriaxone as antibiotic resistance has developed to many previously used medications.

Syphilis – (syfilis) called the Great Imitator due to its frequent atypical symptoms, is a sexually transmitted infection. The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages present (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary). The primary stage typically starts with a single chancre (a firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration), secondary syphilis with a diffuse rash which frequently involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, latent syphilis with little to no symptoms, and tertiary syphilis with gummas (a soft, non-cancerous growth), neurological problems, and/or cardiac symptoms. Syphilis can be effectively treated with antibiotics. Syphilis remains a global problem with an estimated 12 million people infected each year, with greater than 90% of cases in the developing world.

Hepatitis B – (hepatitída B) is an infectious, sexually transmitted virus which infects the liver. Symptoms include liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice, and (rarely) death. Chronic hepatitis B may eventually cause cirrhosis and liver cancer—a fatal disease with very poor response to current chemotherapy. The infection is preventable by vaccination. the disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China.

HPV (Human papillomavirus) – (ľudským papilomavírusom) Is a family of 200 different viruses, of which, about 40 are sexually transmitted, the majority of which have no symptoms. Some types can cause warts, while others can (rarely) lead to cancers of the genitals, and/or mouth. Most HPV infections in young females are temporary and have little long-term significance. Seventy percent of infections are gone in 1 year and ninety percent in 2 years. However, when the infection persists (5% to 10% of infected women) there is high risk of developing precancerous lesions of the cervix, which can progress to cervical cancer. This process usually takes 10–15 years. Cervical screening using a Pap test is used to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer. There are an estimated 490,000 cases and 270,000 deaths each year.

Chlamydia – the Silent Epidemic, is a common sexually transmitted infection and a major cause of human genital and eye disease. If untreated, chlamydial infections can cause serious reproductive and other health problems. Between half and three-quarters of all women who have a chlamydia infection of the cervix have no symptoms for years and do not know that they are infected. Of these women, approximately half will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a generic term for infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. PID can cause scarring inside reproductive organs, chronic pelvic pain, difficulty becoming pregnant, ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, and other dangerous complications of pregnancy.

In men, about 50% get an infection of the urethra. Symptoms include a painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge, swollen or tender testicles, or fever. Untreated, chlamydia can spread to the testicles causing epididymitis, and possibly sterility. Chlamydia conjunctivitis or trachoma is a common cause of blindness worldwide.The infection can be spread from eye to eye by fingers, shared towels or cloths, coughing, sneezing, and eye-seeking flies.

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) - is a disease of the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The illness interferes with the immune system destroying CD4+ T white blood cells, making patients much more likely to get infections. Once the number of CD4+ T cells per microliter (µL) of blood drops below 200, immunity is lost. In the absence of treatment, the average progression from HIV to AIDS takes nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months. However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years. Although treatments for HIV/AIDS can slow the course of the disease, there is no cure or HIV vaccine.

HIV is transmitted through anal, vaginal, or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated needles, pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. The disease is a major health problem all over the world, and is considered a pandemic, a disease outbreak that is actively spreading. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated there are 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new infections per year and 2.0 million annual deaths. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both deaths and new infections, but these drugs are expensive and are not available in all countries. Prevention is a key goal, with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programmes to slow the spread of the virus.

Symptoms of AIDS are encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain), AIDS dementia complex (ADC), severe diarrhoea, fevers, night sweats, swollen glands, chills, weakness, weight loss, and certain cancers. Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is the most common, often appearing as purplish nodules on the skin, and can affect other organs, especially the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs:

Invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women is also considered AIDS-defining, and is caused by human papillomavirus. Pneumocystis pneumonia is relatively rare in healthy people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. In developing countries, it is still one of the first indications of AIDS in untested individuals. Tuberculosis co-infection is unique because it is transmissible to healthy people as well. Unexplained chronic diarrhea in HIV infection is due to many possible causes, including common bacterial and parasitic infections. In some cases, diarrhea may be a side effect of several drugs used to treat HIV.


Scarlet Fever
– (šarlach) is a disease caused by exotoxin released by Streptococcus pyogenes. Once a major cause of death, it is now effectively treated with antibiotics. Symptoms are sore throat, fever, bright red tongue, and a rash, starting on the face and spreading down to the rest of the body, and eventually peeling.

Polio – (obrna) is a viral, infectious disease spread by ingesting contaminated food or water. Although about 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream. In about 1% of cases, the virus enters the central nervous system, infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness. Different types of paralysis may occur. Spinal polio is the most common, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs. There is no cure for polio, but there are vaccines. The focus of modern treatment has been on providing relief of symptoms, speeding recovery, and preventing complications. Measures include antibiotics to prevent infections, painkillers, moderate exercise, and a nutritious diet. Treatment often requires long-term physical therapy, braces, corrective shoes, and orthopedic surgery. Portable ventilators may be required for breathing. While now rare in the Western world, polio is still endemic to South Asia and Nigeria. A global effort to eradicate polio began in 1988, reducing the number of annual cases 99% from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to a low of 483 cases in 2001, after which it has remained at a level of about 1,000 cases per year.

Plague – (mor) is a deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. Plague is notorious throughout history, due to its unrivaled scale of death and devastation. In the 14th century killed an estimated 100 million worldwide (30-60% of the European population and half of China). Primarily carried by rats and spread to humans via fleas, Plague can also be spread in the air, by direct contact, or by contaminated undercooked food or materials. There are three major forms of plague in history: Bubonic, Pneumonic, and Septicemic. The most infamous symptom of bubonic plague is the infection and swelling of lymph glands, called buboes. Other symptoms are Acral gangrene, chills, malaise, high fever, muscle cramps, seizures, change in skin color, and bleeding of the ears.

Pneumonic plague, rarer than bubonic, infects the lungs. The first signs of illness are fever, headache, weakness, and rapidly developing pneumonia with shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing blood. The pneumonia progresses for two to four days and may cause respiratory failure and shock. Patients will die without early treatment, some within 36 hours.

Septicemic plague is the rarest and deadliest. Bacteria get into the bloodstream, forcing the blood to clot inside the victim. This results in depletion of the body's clotting resources, so that it can no longer control bleeding. Consequently, there is bleeding into the skin and other organs, which can cause red and/or black patchy rash and vomiting blood. There are bumps on the skin that look somewhat like insect bites. Untreated, septicemic plague is fatal. Early treatment (within 24 hours) with antibiotics reduces the mortality rate to between 4 and 15 percent. In some cases, people may even die on the same day they contract it.

While there are still reported cases of plague, there is also a vaccine against bubonic plague, and incidents are much smaller now than before. It is possible that plague could be used as a biological weapon, by terrorist groups.

Monday, December 12, 2011

Film - Sicko

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Part 4

Part 5

Part 6

Part 7

Part 8

Part 9

Part 10

Part 11

Part 12

Extra Interview with Elizabeth Warren

Extra about Norway


to go out of business/bankrupt – skrachovať
an OB-GYN (obstetrician and gynaecology) – a specialist doctor
to flush a wound – čistiť s vela voda
health insurance/coverage/HMO (health management organization) – zdravotné poistenie
a sicko – zvrhlík
a landfill – skládka odpadkov
uninsured – nepoistený
storage room – skladisko
a machinist – strojník v tovareň
a heart attack – infarct
cancer – rakovina
co-pays (co-payments) – mesačný splátky
deductibles – poplatky ktore plati na každa navšteva v nemocnicy, s doktorom, alebo operacii
by sheer coincidence – len súlad
a contractor – staviteľ
plumbing – inštallacia aj nápravná údržba toalety, umyvadla, etc.
to kick back somewhere – odychovať
Medicare – štatny poistenie pre starši
spillages – rozliatie
a painkiller – liek proti bolesti
a head-on-collision – čelná zrážka vozidiel
to be knocked out cold/unconscious – omráčeny
paramedics – zdravotná sestry ktore šoferuju sanitky
ambulance ride – jazd v sanitku
preapproved – vopred odsúhlasený
to reject/be rejected/to weed someone out – odmietnuť, byť odmieteny, vyradný
bodymass index – pomer medzi vahov aj viško
to take matters in your own hands –zobrať niečo na seba
deaf – hluchý
cochlear implants – slimákovitý implantát do ucha
a denial – odmietnutie
to suck (slang) – ked niečo je na nič
an insurance quote – odhad mesačna cena
a preexisting condition – skôr jestvujúci choroba
diabetes – cukrovka
ineligible/not eligible – nevoliteľný
brain tumor – tumor mozgu
to get red carpet treatment – byť vyjednany ako kral
chemotherapy – chemoterapia
an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) test – magnatická rezonancia
a referral – žiadosť o súhlas
a medical reviewer – posudzovateľ podstupeňa operacia
a yeast infection – kvasinkovú infekciu
a serious ailment – vážna choroba
undisclosed/secret – neodhalený
a slip-up – urobiť chybu
to conceal/misrepresent something – skryť niečo
to jack up the rates – zvýšiť ceny
prudent person preexisting condition – any symptom related to an illness that was uncomfirmed by a doctor prior to applying.
to slip through the cracks – byť ignorovany systemom
kidney cancer – rakovina obličky
to faze someone – trápiť niekomu
to maim – zohaviť
a logjam – prekážka
to postpone – odložiť
a fearmonger – širič poplašný sprava
a coffee klatch – stretnutie v doma
a precedent – predošlý
to go unchecked – zostať nepovšimnutý
a (legislative) bill – navrch zakona
to come down with an illness – nabažiť sa
a common-law partner – spoločná domáce manžel/ka
to be adament – byť tvrdý, neústupný
Parkinson’s Disease – Parkinsonová choroba
a stroke – mozgová poraška
to be due (when pregnant) – očakávať
to have reduced means – byť chudobný
to get reimbursed – byť zaplatený
bottom of the rung – najhorši
to pull together – spojiť sily
low/high blood pressure – nízky/vysoký krvná tlak
to demoralize someone – znemravniť niekto
infant mortality rate – detská úmrtnosť
fever of 104o Farenheit = 40o Celsius
911 – telefónna čislo pre prvy pomôc, v Amerika
an out-of-network hospital – nemocnica mimo poistene siete
a seizure – mozgová mŕtvica
to be escorted out of a building (by police) – byť doprevádzaný zo policajty
cardiac arrest – srdcová porucha
to expire – umrieť
to be in a daze –
social security – sociálne zabezpečenie
premiums – prémie
preventative care – ochranný starostlivosť
a sick day – den odpustený prace, vedľa choroby
skid row – a run-down or dilapidated urban area with a large, impoverished population
a voucher – záruka
to thwart the terrorists – mariť terroristi
a fundraiser – udalosť pre zbierať peniaze pre charita
a raffle – lotéria, tombola
pulmonary fibrosis – pľúcny fibróza
a respiratory illness – dýchací choroba
an EMT (emergency medical technician) volunteer – dobrovoľný sdravotný sestra/brat
grinding teeth – mlieť zubi
an affidavit – miestoprísažné vyhlásenie
to catch your breath – lapať po dychu
sleep apnea – choroba ked ne dzchaš dosť kym spíte

7OB Homework - Dec 12th

Dear Students,

Your homework is in your Yes! book, Unit 6:

1. Exercises A, B, C, D on pages 64-65
2. One student will be chosen to repeat the information we read in class on Unit 6, Healthcare
3. Vocab quiz, from the list on page 68.

Wednesday, November 30, 2011

7A - Nov 29th - Homework

Dear Students,

Today we watched a film. Next week we will finish reading the text for Unit 6.

Your homework is:

Exercises EFG,
Friendship Magazine page 8 - read the article, fill in the table, and answer question 5: common words in Slovak that reflect social class.

Monday, November 28, 2011

7OB, Nov 28th Homework

Dear Students,

Here is your homework:
1. homework: Exercises A,B,C,D for Unit 5, on pages 53-54.
2. Friendship Magazine: Page 8 - Read the article, fill in the vocabulary, and answer Question 5, with Slovak Words.
3. One student will be called to review the information from Unit 6, Healthcare. Just read the article and review the questions at the end of it.
4. Vocabulary Quiz - Unit 5, from the Text.

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Shopping Centres

There are many kinds of shopping centres (American: centers), each with advantages and disadvantages. This lesson focuses on explaining the differences between them.

Shopping centres include: shopping malls, outlet malls, strip malls, department stores, megastores, and town centres.


1. Malls are like a block of flats, but for shops. Each little shop rents space each month, and the mall owners make money by collecting this rent. So, it's one big building, but with lots of little companies. There is usually a large food court, and a parking garage. It's great for rainy days.

2. A Strip Mall is an outdoor mall. The strip is a little street or pavement (American: sidewalk). You have to go outside to the strip to go from one shop to another. Strip malls have large car parks. It's great for sunny days, not so much for rainy ones. Neo Zone in Spišská Nová Ves is a strip mall.

3. An Outlet Mall can be indoors or out. What makes it special is there are always sales - everything is on discount (akcie). Outlet malls collect clothing and other products that weren't popular in regular stores, and try to sell them again at lower prices. You can find famous brands, even Prada and Armani at cheaper prices - but remember, it's all the least popular clothing from last year. It's not second hand, but it's not really new either. During holiday shopping, outlet malls become a nightmarish hell-scape where people fight each other over the one, last, nice coat, etc. And, it looks like a cyclone hit it.

Department Stores

Department stores are not malls. A department store is one big shop with many floors. They sell many different things, from food, to clothing, to electronics and books. They sell almost everything - but each part, or department, of the store is owned by one company. They make deals with manufacturers to get all the best brand names, but the department store has to sell it, and shares the profit. Department stores don't rent space like a mall, so, no matter where you go in Selfridge's, for example, you're still in Selfridge's.

Here are some photos of famous department stores, from the book:


Megastores (also called Hypermarkets in Britain) are very similar to department stores. It's also one large company, selling a variety of goods, organized into different sections or departments. So, what's the difference?

1. Department stores are older. Megastores are newer.
2. Department stores are located in cities, although you can sometimes find a smaller one in a shopping mall. Megastores are often located outside large cities, or in smaller towns, or even between towns, in the middle of the woods.
3. Department stores usually don't have a car park. Customers walk to the shop, and take public transportation home - it's practical for city life. Megastores have huge car parks.
4. Department stores are more upscale. They look nicer, and sell classier items. Upscale & classy mean luxurious, and more expensive. Megastores look cheap and ugly in comparison - with no windows, and warehouse style ceilings, and they sell cheap, practical items, often of lower quality.

Famous megastores include:


Some megastores focus on one kind of product, like:
construction: Home Depot, Lowes, Baumax
furniture: IKEA, Kika, Jordon's
toys: Toys 'R' Us, Babies 'R' Us, FAO Schwartz


A supermarket is like a megastore that focuses on food. It may sell some other things, like magazines, toys, socks, and things for your kitchen and bathroom. But it's mostly food.

Town Centres

A Town Centre is also a shopping centre, usually with small, locally owned shops. Some large cities have chain stores in their town centre, usually mixed in with local shops.

A chain store is any store with many locations, all selling the same products. Chains stores are usually found in malls, but are sometimes placed on city streets.

Town centres are special for several reasons. They serve more functions than merely shopping. Town centres have churches, parks, squares, concerts, fairs (trhy), theatres, and museums. Town centres are historic. Many of the important events in a town's history happen in the centre.

Town centres often compete with malls and megastores for customers. Some town centres lose all their business, and the shops go bankrupt. Some towns make it hard to park in the centre, making people pay to park, and issuing parking tickets. This hurts local business.

When local businesses go bankrupt, all the money they would've earned goes to chain stores and megastores - out of town. When local businesses do well, the money stays in town, and store owners can provide the town with charities and public works.

Friday, November 18, 2011

Housing Supplement

Dear Students,

Here are some examples of different kinds of houses. You should review this for the Maturita.

Note: A house is a building. A home is more than a building. It also includes your family, your town, your country, and your culture. 'Home' is about feeling comfortable.

Basic Information:


Those are the basics. Now, if you want to learn some details about different architectural styles and other options for homes, keep reading: